Larry Krantz Flute Pages - Lord Dissertation on Peter Lloyd - 4 Chapter 4 Back to Main Index

Tone Color Dynamics
Baroque Articulation Conventions Baroque Tempi
Baroque Music and Phrasing Baroque Music and Vibrato
Re-editing Baroque Works Baroque/Classical Ornamentation
Writing Cadenzas in Baroque and Classical Era Works Closing

Although there is a wealth of Baroque and Classical era flute repertoire for flutists to explore, flutists today are caught in a quandary. Most flutists do not wish to continue playing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century music in a quasi-Romantic era style, as was the case before the "authentic" movement was intitated by Arnold Dolmetsch at the beginning of the twentieth century. But how authentically can Baroque and Classical music be played on a modern instrument? What areas should be followed strictly, and where may performers have some latitude? Most importantly, how can twentieth-century performers play this music correctly without having it sound like a museum piece instead of a musical work?

No less a personality than James Galway has felt the intimidating force of playing Baroque and Classical music. As he puts it, "The temptation is to be correct to the point of inflexibility." Although "in the case of Baroque music, you do have to get inside that past world before you can make it actual to the present," he urges performers not to present the music "as a scholarly thesis." He feels that the overriding rule is to "carry its message to the audience whatever the musical conventions of the century in which it was written."

Nancy Toff writes that the primary consideration is whether performers are introducing "anachronisms" into their musical presentations. She points out that of the five basic elements of music--rhythm, melody, harmony, dynamics, and tone color--the first three remain the same on any instrument. The last two, plus aarticulation, differences in phrasing, ornamentation, and cadenzas, are variable and are of great concern to modern flutists. These points are addressed in this chapter.

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Tone Color

Obviously, tone color has changed from the days of the wooden, one-keyed flute; metal flutes have a clearer, more strident tone. In the early twentieth century this was cause for some dismay among flutists who felt that the new metal flutes sounded harsh.

Peter Lloyd does not advocate trying to copy a Baroque wooden flute sound on a twentieth-century metal instrument; however, he does feel that a change in tone color is desirable.

    We can't imitate the Baroque flute, so let's not try. On the other hand...we want to soften the color enough [to] take away the aggression of what we can do on the silver flute. On my own flute, I would take away a lot of the lower harmonics...and just play much softer.

Particularly for Baroque works, Lloyd asks flutists to avoid using all the force capable on a modern instrument.

    Generally, cut out strength of color....I don't want to hear your enormous big, rich sound coming out of a Baroque sonata. Somehow--unless the pianist is terribly loud--I don't think it's appropriate, because I think the whole beauty now, for us, is that wwe can play these pieces very gently and very beautifully [and] in a completely different level of dynamic control. And I think we can on our flutes do [it] very well.

In performance, Peter Lloyd suggests putting a Baroque or Classical work beside a work from another era, so that the differences in style and tone may be easily heard by an audience.

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When playing Baroque/Classical music on a modern flute, Lloyd asks flutists to narrow their dynamic range. When playing on a twentieth-century instrument, the temptation is to use all the resources of a twentieth-century instrument. This, he advises, should be avoided.

    I know that there are feelings that when we play these pieces on this [modern] flute that we need to play them according to what the flute does [but]...I think we can actually control dynamics much better... and my feeling is that piano is dolce and forte is rich, rather than loud and soft.

The point of using tone color changes rather than volume to differentiate dynamics in Baroque and Classical era music is one that Peter Lloyd has made again and again. The following quotes are from various masterclasses:

    What are dynamic differences on the Baroque flute? You know the CPE Bach Solo Sonata [Sonata in A Minor]? You've noticed that he's going along [at a dynamic of] piano quite happily and all of a sudden he drops these great fortes. Well, he can't possibly mean that. But you hear people on modern flutes going "do, do, do, DAHHHH," and it just doesn't make any sense. And you think well, what does this mean? I don't think piano and forte meant the same thing. It didn't necessarily mean loud and soft. I think a lot of it meant gentle, peaceful [and] maybe just that little bit broader. And that way it starts to make just a little bit more sense.

    In CPE Bach...when it's piano, it's often dolce. If it's forte, it's rich. They hadn't the dynamic range....I think that's very important. If you look at practically all CPE Bach you find funny little dynamic changes that just don't make sense. I mean look at the Sonata in A Minor, super-piano for two notes and then super-forte. All that means [is] an enrichment of the sound--a change of color.

    The other example [besides] the CPE Bach is the G Major Concerto of Mozart. You think in terms of the last movement where you've got forte and piano--the fortes are only stresses. And I think that would make it sound right.

    Forte is "warm, rich" sometimes and not just loud.

    Think of "p" as "gentle" and "f" as "richer" when playing Baroque music on modern flute.

    Note lengths can also help differentiate dynamics in music of these periods. Although he cautions against making it a general rule, Lloyd suggests as an aid in some problematic areas, "Play...longer notes in the fortes and then shorten them in the lighter places."

    Flutists should keep in mind that dynamics of the time were terraced, which is perfectly possible on a modern flute. As a rule of thumb, Lloyd suggests that dynamics rise and fall with phrases [or sequences].

    There's a very easy way of [dealing with]...any Baroque composer that tends to write in terraces. Go up with it. As your tessitura rises, crescendo. It's a very nice thing to use if you've got a difficult piece to understand. It's a very easy way to get some idea of where lines are going to go. Of course, it's a generalization so there are of course exceptions.

    In conclusion, he stresses, "Try to emphasize that the difference in dynamics is mood, character, color, pathos, and all that as against the present day dynamic change in volume.

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Baroque Articulation Conventions

In general, for Baroque and Classical works, Peter Lloyd recommends slightly shorter note lengths than flutists tend to play on twentieth-century works. In many classes he has advised flutists to "let some light in" between notes. "It's all very slow and ponderous," he told one player. "You've got to let the light in!" After working with another player, he said, "You see, it gives the piece more air and light....Let it have space and light above all ....Think of it as more light in character [with] more lightness in the articulation."

This does not mean that flutists should play with a choppy, "staccatissimo" articulation. This would be just as inappropriate.

Baroque and Classical era texts tend to equate articulation on the flute with bowing strokes on a violin.

In a comparison between the violin and the flute, it will be found that what the bow is to the violin the wind is to the flute and what the arm, governing the bow, is to the former--the tongue, governing the wind, is to the latter.

The tongue is the means by which we give animation to the execution of the notes upon the flute. It is indispensable for musical articulation, and serves the same purpose as the bow-stroke upon the violin.

Baroque and Classical musicians used a bewildering array of syllables, with an equally bewildering number of rules, to represent the various styles of articulation. Quantz lists extremely detailed instructions for use of the following syllables: ti, di, ri, (and combinations of those three), did'll, and tid'll. Tromlitz lists thirteen rules, followed by their exceptions. He cites the following articulation syllables: ta, da, ra, hat (or at). Other syllables in Baroque era tonguings included "tootle" and one for tonguing four notes, which was the British pronunciation of "territory." Peter Lloyd stops short of incorporating these on modern flute.

I'm not suggesting that you use curious articulations because I don't think they work on this flute very easily. But I do think we can do quite a lot with...lengths of notes--they were generally a lot shorter--slow movements and such. There was much more life in them.

With [forward tonguing] articulation technique there are a multitude of different positions on the lip that we can use to make different types of articulation. Maybe...modern flute [players] can cope with quite a lot of problems that we have [with Baroque articulations].

As far as slurring and tonguing notes, Baroque and Classical musicians left many decisions to the performer. Musicians of today find this a worrisome task. What is the "right" thing to do? So much is left unmarked in urtext editions, but overmarked in modern editions. Lloyd encourages flutists to use common sense in marking their own articulations and to "make use of the few original marks that are there." Using the flute sonatas of J.S. Bach as an example, he explained:

    What Bach did...was to put in a consistent slur and expect you to be consistent later on. If he put a slur on a phrase and did it [that phrase] again later on, he expected you to do it [the same articulation]. It was natural. If there are [written] slurs, use them as suggestions....

Peter Lloyd cautioned that the above statement is a generalization, and not always the case.

    It's [only] a suggestion. Difference, between one phrase and another even if the phrases are exactly the same, will sometimes emphasize a point on the repeated phrase--especially if the phrase is repeated in a different key. Think of improvising as you go along. Try to be aware of what thee accompaniment's doing and see where the modulation is going.

For guidance in marking one's own Baroque articu-lations, Lloyd suggests listening to present-day musicians who perform on one-keyed Baroque style flutes, particularly Barthold Kuijken. By listening to Baroque music specialists, modern flutists can get hints and ideas of their own. Although readings are encouraged, when it comes to actual playing, he says, "It's very difficult to read a treatise on something and understand how to perform it."

When slur markings are added, Lloyd advises highlighting them, to bring out the smaller shapes of articulations within the larger phrases. For instance, during a series of paired slurs, he encouraged a flutist:

    When you see phrases like this, on the [slurred] pairs, lose the second notes more, so they don't slur into one another.

And again,

    The pairs of notes--I think you should make a little more of it. Lose the second of the two notes, so you don't get [sings a more connected verrsion]. Then when you get your [slurred] threes, there'll be a difference....I think these little things really are important, and I think that we can do it with this [modern] flute.

    It's hard on the flute to clear the ends of slurs ....The trouble with the flute is that it tends to go all over the slur unless we cut [i.e., shorten] the end of the [last] note [of the slur].

Peter Lloyd cites the second movement of Mozart's Concerto in G Major as an especially good example of small phrases adding up into a larger whole.

One articulation flutists should avoid in Baroque-era music that is more acceptable in Classical-era music is a grouping of four where the first two notes are slurred and the second two are tongued. Often cited but rarely explained, Lloyd speculates that the rarity of this articulation had to do with the violins of the day.

    They very rarely used [sings slur two/tongue two] in those days. You'll find very few examples in the literature of that phrasing at all. One of the reasons [was] because for violin in those days, the bridge was much lower, and so the strings were therefore that much closer. Not only that, but the bow was much floppier which also made things more difficult. And gut strings were not so hard. [So] it was much harder for them to play [this articulation]. It was much easier for them to play three slurred, one tongued or one tongued, three slurred or groups of slurs in twos. 512

    Modern flutists using facsimiles must be careful that markings are not misunderstood. For instance, notes with vertical dashes over them may be interpreted as marcato. However, as Lloyd explains, these markings were meant to be staccato. "Originally they had vertical dashes, which are equivalent to dots, so it's half the note value."513

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Baroque Tempi

Although Peter Lloyd cautions flutists not to become too worried about exact historical tempi, he urges some attention to relative tempi between movements in a work, citing Hans Peter Schmitt's Bahrenreiter edition of J.S. Bach's Partita in A Minor:

    Look, it's very important to remember...that they say "with the accepted tradition" that one bar of Courante equals 1/2 a bar of Allemande... If that is right, your Courante should have been quicker or your Allemande slower.514

Peter Lloyd finds that modern flutists tend to take the slow movements of Baroque works too slowly in general.

    It seems to me that the slow movement needs to move....I won't expound upon how I believe these pieces should be played, but certainly the slow movements need to move onwards slightly.515

    Have a look at the Handel Sonata in E Minor. It [should] always dance. And we never hear it dance.516

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Baroque Music and Phrasing

Dynamics and articulation are not isolated issues in the performance of Baroque music on modern flute, but are related to bringing out phrasing. Peter Lloyd believes that the shapes of Baroque and Classical era phrases are muddled by over-Romanticizing these works--shaping phrases into long lines more suitable to later works. He feels that shaping smaller phrases within longer ones is more appropriate to the intimate nature of these works, many of which were written for private patrons' concerts or chapels. Emphasizing articulation markings and using dynamic terracing highlight smaller phrases, which in turn shape larger areas.

    Try to think in terms of a long phrase that's built up of small units. You're not destroying the phrase. Make use of the small units to build the phrase. It's different. And then the difference in Classical music is [that] the phrase units are longer--not so small.517

During a masterclass, he explained:

    I think you can be a lot freer....I think your peak [phrase climax] was absolutely right. But I think there are other little peaks. You see, I'm not going to tell you how to play this because I think there's 120 different ways of playing this. [But] I think it's important that you should get an idea of how freely you can play this.518

Another component of phrasing is meter. Peter Lloyd feels that performers of those days had much more freedom than modern performers usually take. Rather than playing along metronomically, he feels that soloists may (taking into consideration differences in national styles) use occasional luftpauses to let listeners (as well as the performer) take a breath. This is especially true at half and authentic cadence points. Lloyd urges performers to realize that there is time within phrasing; taking this time is a major component of shaping a phrase.

    It's like playing a slow movement of a Bach sonata [when] we hear these long, long lines that never seem to stop. It shouldn't be. The phrase should be a long phrase, but the pieces of it should be broken up more. And it's the same with all these pieces. Light is so important. Silences in music are probably more important than noise.519

    I think we should make mention of French style ...Blavet is somebody I think we need to watch very carefully, because he is the only person we know of who actually put in his own phrasing marks where you can take breaths. You [may] take so much time...that it's almost as though you're becoming totally spontaneous. When the idea's over, it's like [dance] steps [being over]. I think in order to interpret the Blavet sonatas in the way he's implied, we need to take dancing lessons in French Baroque technique. It would give us a chance to understand why some of these very curious colors were put in there. He's--to my knowledge--the only person who did that. If we use that as an example and manage to play the Blavet sonatas as he's written, using those colors and doing them properly--you'll find some editions where they've been totally left out because obviously the editors don't understand--if we could do that, maybe that would influence the way we play Couperin, Rameau, and any of the others.520 I think one of the things that we must remember in music, the most effective parts of music are the silences.521

Again, playing smaller phrase units has much to do with articulation, especially the idea of letting light between notes and between groups of slurs. This is not to say that a performer should play in a jerky, stop-and-start fashion. A luftpause may be taken without interrupting the overall line.

One way that Lloyd has found to keep Baroque music moving even when using shorter phrases and periods of silences is to count in longer note divisions, especially in slow movements that use subdivision. If the performer would normally count eight beats to a bar, Lloyd advocates counting four--or even two. In that way musical lines seem to move forward, avoiding the stodginess often heard in even the most correct performances.522

Peter Lloyd feels that most modern-flute performers do not give the placements of bar lines proper respect in Baroque era music. Bar lines were a relatively recent addition to music by the Baroque era, and he feels that much attention was paid to where the strong and weak beats were placed. By using longer Romantic era phrasings in these works, modern performers blur the intentions of the composer and lose some of the flavor of a work. A case in point is the J.S. Bach "Badinerie" movement of his Suite in B Minor, where the entire movement seems to be two beats off-center.

    I feel that you must use the first notes [of the Badinerie] as a pickup. So often you hear performances where the bar line's turned around and the shape of the tune really changes. But it isn't [sings tune with strong beats on second beat]. It's [sings tune with strong beats on first beat]. I think that's a much lighter, more elegant line. I think bar lines here are far more important than they are in other styles.523

With another Baroque work, Lloyd advised:

    Bar lines, I think are important....If you start doing too much accent on the second beat, we've already upset the intent....Feel the lines, go toward the bar lines. You may think that it's going to sound all chopped up. It doesn't, because the line is right through it...let light into it.524

In shaping smaller phrase units, dissonances--especially appoggiaturas--also deserve more attention than they are usually afforded by modern players. Peter Lloyd cautions that this is not a dynamic consideration. The word appoggiatura means to lean, not to attack. It is more a question of length.

    Try to have slightly longer appoggiaturas. Appoggiaturas are more important than what follows ...the appoggiatura is always the important note.525

Lloyd adds a caveat to this statement, saying that the appoggiatura length may vary according to the mood and tempo of each work.

    We must remember the length of the appoggiatura is not determined by the piece. It can be a long one, a short one, or a mixed up sort of thing. Length is very much determined by the mood.526

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Baroque Music and Vibrato

    It is a mistake to believe that vibrato was unknown to Baroque and Classical flutists. It was a special effect known as "flattement," used to embellish long notes and produced by waving up and down the fingers not covering a tone hole.527 Vibrato produced by fluctuations in air speed was also known, but was frowned upon.

    I remind you once again that on the flute the flattement may not be made with the chest because if it is, one can very easily get into the habit of wobbling, which results in a miserable execution....I also remind you again to use this ornament only seldom, so that it will not fail to have its good effect, whereas on the contrary it will certainly arouse disgust if it appears too often.528

Peter Lloyd does not forbid the use of vibrato in Baroque and Classical works, but he does feel that it should be minimized, because even on a modern flute the performer is working with a smaller dynamic palette. As he advised during a masterclass, "Lose the tension in the vibrato. Be much more relaxed. I don't say don't use any at all, but keep it down as more of a color in the sound."529

Above all, flutists should avoid any vibrato that calls attention to itself. Nancy Toff decries "wide, Brahmsian, orchestral-style vibrato" as an obvious anachronism when playing music of the Baroque and Classical eras.530

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Re-editing Baroque Works There are many editions of Baroque works in which editors have added articulations and dynamic markings. Because scholarship of Baroque and Classical era music has grown in the last thirty years and so much information is currently available to players, Peter Lloyd suggests that flutists start from a "clean" copy of a work and add their own markings.

This does not mean that players should over-edit their own copies. Lloyd suggests putting in as few marks as possible.

Especially when confronting an edition published from 1950 or before, Lloyd says:

    Since they did these editions, all this [additional] information has been made available to us. And we do have to go a little beyond what they used to do....I think it is important nowadays for those of you who have got these old editions that are heavily marked up, edited, [even] by very great flute players of their day, do think twice about it. Look at contemporary editions....These were wonderful editions a while ago, but now it's different.532

    If anyone has seen Kiujken's Bach sonatas--okay, they're terribly expensive--but they're absolutely brilliant. [It's got] notes on performance practice, history, comments on possible right notes and wrong notes--everything you could possibly imagine has been included.533

During one class, with an especially onerous edition, Lloyd burst out:

    Now, the...thing that I take issue with [in] this wretched edition, is that dear Mr. [name withheld], whenever he organized this...some of the slurring is so awkward and so counter to the style that it's just plain crazy!534

In the case of an over-edited work, Lloyd explained his solution.

    What I did do was to take this piece and paint out all the dynamics and every slur with white ink...[then] getting a [xerox] copy and starting all over again. That works very well.535

    Players who do not want to mark their original copies permanently may first make a xerox of a page, then take out all the articulation and dynamic markings and make one or more "clean" copies on which to put new markings.

Peter Lloyd uses urtext versions of Baroque and Classical works whenever possible. However, this habit once backfired on him.

    I remember a lesson I had with [Marcel] Moyse when all this was just beginning to break forth, and I had the temerity to bring the [J.S. Bach] B-Minor Sonata to him. He looked at my Bahrenreiter part and he said, "Where are the marks?" He was very, very angry, and he proceeded to scrawl all over my music. "Crescendo! Diminuendo! Mezzo-Forte! Forte!" He was sort of punishing them out at me--he was very angry.536

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Baroque/Classical Ornamentation

Ornaments are more usually added to Baroque works, as composers of the Classical era had begun to write in the ornaments of their choice rather than leaving ornamentation up to the performer. Ornamentation was expected of performers, rather as jazz players are expected to improvise a standard tune. It is especially important that younger players realize they are not breaking a rule by adding ornaments. Slow movements and repeated phrasings are particularly suited to ornamentation.

Peter Lloyd's biggest concern about ornamentation is that it sound improvisatory. Most flutists are so worried about playing "correct" ornaments that the works become static museum pieces instead of living works of art.

The late Thomas Nyfenger captured the joy of ornamenting Baroque works when he wrote:

    What fun! So what of the fellows with the powdered wigs and the funny instruments? Is there not jazz or its equivalent in every age? Perhaps Telemann didn't saunter into the local pub and ask the boys to cut his new chart, but the effect and sentiment may well have been the same. Squareness and stodginess are products of dusty minds as is historical blindness and blandness and undue reverence for any composer whose art has survived his presence.537

Lloyd cautions players to mark their ornament suggestions lightly in pencil. When returning to a work months or years later, performers may have changed their minds completely. If they are able, he encourages performers to add ornaments spontaneously. "Try not to write it all out. I think it should be more improvisatory."

During a masterclass, he encouraged a performer playing a Stamitz concerto this way.

    This isn't music to listen to sitting in rows. I think you ought to be wandering around talking, occasionally listening. It sounds awfully sterile like this somehow. I think you ought to feel the music has charm and enjoy yourself more, and not [feel] that you're examining it with a microscope.

    Enjoy it more. Just let yourself do things rather than thinking, "How should I do this?"538

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Writing Cadenzas in Baroque and Classical Era Works

The history of cadenzas is not generally known among flutists.

At the end of a piece of music or a major section of music, early singers and instrumentalists often added a fanciful, somewhat virtuosic flourish. This embellishment was intended to surprise the audience, heighten the intensity of the music, and probably also encourage an outburst of applause.

During the embellishment, the movement of the accompaniment stopped....

Because of their Italian origin and their location at major cadence points, all such cadential embellishments have come to be called "cadenzas," the Italian word for cadences.539

In many instances, flutists use pre-written cadenzas when playing a Baroque or Classical-era concerto. Usually those cadenzas were not written by the composer, and often they were written during the Romantic era or the twentieth century. They vary widely in length from a few measures to cadenzas almost as long as the rest of the movement; the style of the cadenzas may not match the styles of the works. In Baroque and Classical times performers were expected to insert their own cadenza, utilizing themes from the work being performed. The purpose was to give the performers time to display their particular talents--whether pyrotechnics, color variations, or emotive qualities.

The object of the cadenza is simply to surprise the listener unexpectedly once more at the end of the piece, and to leave behind a special impression in his heart.540

Lloyd encourages present-day performers to write their own cadenzas. Most modern flutists shudder at the thought of having to be a composer as well as a performer. He informs flutists that their cadenzas need not be as long or as complicated as the ones they see. In fact, he feels that most pre-written cadenzas are too long. In one class he commented:

    Mozart's orders--what was current in the day--was, two breaths for cadenzas. No wind player was going to sustain any audience's interest for more than two breaths!541

Performers similarly feel that they have to play very fast in the cadenza or it will not be good.

    We have this terrible feeling as flute players that it's boring, or it's getting boring, so we sort of think, "I'd better get on with it." You must take your time. Stretch elegant. Wait for it. Don't rush. Giving it the timing, the space--it sounds so beautiful. It's timing and placing, all the time. And don't forge the silences.542

The problem of writing and playing cadenzas in Baroque and Classical era works was important enough to come up as a topic for a question-and-answer session during a 1995 masterclass. One performer asked about cadenza length.

    The Mozart ones are supposed to be done in two breaths, but as the fashion has gone on...they got so long and so remote from the key that it took a long time to get back. But that [two breaths] was the original rule....There are no existing cadenzas by anybody of those days that I know of. I haven't heard any....On the other hand, having said that, Mozart wrote piano concerto cadenzas but he didn't write violin concerto cadenzas. So I don't know exactly what issued from that. It's a rash assumption to say that wind players could do it [write their own cadenzas] and the others couldn't!543

During the same session, another performer asked about editing existing cadenzas. Are they sacred, or can performers use parts they like and omit the rest? His answer:

    I don't see why not. Look at the Reinecke Flute and Harp [Mozart's Concerto for Flute and Harp in C Major] cadenzas [i.e., Carl Reinecke's cadenzas written for the third movement of the Mozart Concerto for Flute and Harp in C Major]. We nearly always start at least halfway through--sometimes near the end of it--because it gets too tortured.544

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Peter Lloyd believes that players now have much more opportunity to bring Baroque and Classical era works to life than before--even on a twentieth-century instrument--because of the scholarship available to any performer and the number and quality of recordings of works available on replicated period instruments.

    I think it's an important thing to remember that we now have available so much information on eighteenth-century technique. And I don't think it's fair to just sort of brush it under the carpet and say, "Oh, well, the Baroque people will do that, because they've got Baroque flutes." I think we [all] have to, now, learn a little bit about phrasing, a little bit about the techniques of the time.545

    I'd also like to say that about early Romantic--some of the pre-Boehm instruments [used in the time of] early Beethoven, and Kuhlau. Maybe we have to re-think a little bit about how they played.546

512 Masterclass notes, 10/29/94, Performer 3.
513 Masterclass notes, 10/23/94, Evening class.
514 Masterclass notes, 6/95, Class 5.
515 Masterclass notes, 6/23/94, Morning class.
516 Additional taped notes, October 1997.
517 Masterclass notes, 6/23/94, Morning class.
518 Masterclass notes, 6/95. Class 5.
519 Masterclass notes, 6/13/95, Evening class.
520 Additional taped notes, October 1997.
521 Masterclass notes, 10/29/94, Performer 1.
522 Masterclass notes, 6/16/94, Morning class.
523 Masterclass notes, 6/18/94, Morning class.
524 Masterclass notes, 6/16/94, Morning class.
525 Masterclass notes, 6/23/94, Morning class.
526 Additional taped notes, October 1997.
527 Quantz, 165-6.
528 Tromlitz, 215.
529 Masterclass notes, 6/23/94, Morning class.
530 Toff, 159.
531 Additional taped notes, October 1997.
532 Masterclass notes, 6/95, Class 10.
533 Additional taped notes, October 1997.
534 Masterclass notes, 6/23/94, Evening class.
535 Ibid.
536 Masterclass notes, 6/95, Class 10.
537 Thomas Nyfenger, Music and the Flute (Guilford, CT, Thomas Nyfenger, 1986), 107.
538 Masterclass notes, 6/95, Class 6.
539 David Lasocki and Betty Bang Mather, The Classical Woodwind Cadenza, A Workbook (New York, NY: McGinnis & Marx, 1978), 1.
540 Quantz, 180.
541 Masterclass notes, 6/95, Class 7.
542 Masterclass notes, 6/13/95, Evening class.
543 Masterclass notes, 6/15/95, Morning class.
544 Ibid.
545 Masterclass notes, 10/29/94, Performer 3.
546 Additional taped notes, October 1997.