Larry Krantz Flute Pages - Wye - Trevor Wye Corner Part II
THE STUDIO
ORCHESTRAL AUDITION MUSIC: TOP OF THE POPS

Recent surveys of orchestral audition lists have revealed the popularity of some pieces which we have called 'Top of The Pops'. Of course, fashions change in orchestral concert planning and a number of people are involved in selecting the audition pieces; the Leader, or Concertmaster, the conductor, orchestral management, and the flute section. A good indication of what might be given as sight reading is a look at the recent programmes of the orchestra for which you are auditioning. The reason for this is that, at the time for selecting the sight reading comes round, someone in the flute section may well suggest a current work as a good auditin piece because it is quite difficult and challenging in some way features of the piece will reveal whether or not the candidate is familiar with more than just the 'Top of the Pops'.

This list is approximately in order of international audition popularity at the time of writing, and there is no reason to expect this list to change very much in the forseeable future.

It goes without saying that the Top Twenty-eight should be thorougly learned - not just for the upcoming audition, but as a future investment: to have these pieces tucked in your belt for an unexpected audition is to be well prepared.

THE TOP TWENTY-EIGHT

According to popularity:
RavelDaphnis & Chloe
DebussyL'apres midi d'un faune
BeethovenOverture: Leonore No.3
MendelssohnScherzo from The Midsummer Night's Dream
BrahmsSymphony No.4
ProkofievClassical Symphony
StraussTill Eulenspiegl
ProkofievPeter and the Wolf
Saint-SaensCarnival of the Animals: 'Voliere'
TchaikowskySymphony No.4
DvorakSymphony in G Major
BartokConcerto for Orchestra
Rimsky-KorsakovScheherazade
StravinskyPetrouchka
BerliozSymphony Fantastique
BrahmsSymphony No.1
BeethovenSymphony No.3
StravinskyFirebird
StravinskySong of the Nightingale
HindemithSymphonic Metamorphoses
HindemithMathes der Maler
Strauss R.Death and Transfiguration
Strauss R.Salome
BizetEntr'Acte from Carmen
ProkofievLeutenant Kije
ProkofievRomeo and Juliet
RavelBolero
RossiniOverture 'William Tell'
BachNo.58 from the St. Mathew Passion

Also Likely to Appear - in Alphabetical order:
BachSt. John Passion
BeethovenSymphonies Nos.1, 6 & 7
BorodinPolotsvian Dances
BrahmsSymphony No.3
BrittenYoung Persons Guide To The Orchestra
DebussyLa Mer
DebussyNocturnes
DvorakNew World Symphony
GluckDance of the Blessed Spirits from Orfeo
HindemithNobilissima Visione
KodalyPeacock Variations
MahlerDas Lied Von Der Erde (last movt.)
MendelssohnSymphony No.4
MussorgskyNight On A Bare Mountain
PistonThe Incredible Flutist
ProkofievSymphony No.5
RavelSuite 'Mother Goose'
RavelLa Valse
ReznicekOverture 'Donna Diana'
Rimsky KorsakovCapriccio Espagnole
Rimsky KorsakovRussian Easter Overture
RossiniOvertures: Semiramide & Barber of Seville
SchubertSymphonies: 5 & 9
SchumannSymphony No.1
ShostakovitchSymphonies: 1, 5, 6, 10, & 15
SmetanaOverture; The Bartered Bride
Strauss R.Don Juan
Strauss R.Sinfonia Domestica
Strauss R.Ein Heldenleben
Strauss R.Don Quixote
StravinskySymphony in 3 Movements
StravinskyRite of Spring
StravinskySong of the Nightingale
StravinskyFairies' Kiss
Tchaikowsky Suite; The Nutcracker
TchaikowskySymphony No.6
TchaikowskyPiano Concerto No.1 (2nd movt.)
ThomasOverture 'Mignon'
WagnerMagic Fire Music
Compiled by Trevor Wye

This Guide was prepared specifically for THE STUDIO, a one year residential course for post-graduate students in Hastingleigh, Kent, England with Trevor Wye.

An information leaflet can be obtained by writing to: THE STUDIO, Tamley Cottage, Hastingleigh, Ashford, Kent, TN25 5HW, England

Return to the Trevor Wye Corner

THE STUDIO
Bach - Flute Sonatas
Bach, J.S.: born in Eisenach, Thuringia, 1675 - died Leipzig, 1750.

Works containing a solo flute part:

Sonata in E Minor:
Flute and continuo. BWV 1034. Composed c. 1720-1726, in Leipzig, the same time as featured flute parts begin to appear in Bach cantatas. There are seven manuscript copies, three of particular note, one in Leipzig and two in the SPK Berlin. The other four are probably copies of these three.

Sonata in E Major:
Flute and continuo. BWV 1035. Composed c. 1739. Probably the last of his solos for flute. Written for Michael Fredersdorf, flute player and valet in Frederick's Court at Potsdam and reflects the galant taste prevalent at the Court. This was the last of Bach's surviving solos for the flute.

Sonata in B Minor:
Flute and harpsichord. BWV 1030. Composed c. 1736. Entirely or partially based on an earlier Sonata in G minor, BWV 1030.

Sonata in G Minor:
Flute and harpsichord. BWV 1030. The earlier version of the later B Minor Sonata and not to be confused with BWV 1020, the other G Minor Sonata. The low tessitura suggests the use of a wide bore flute with a powerful low register and direct tone, possibly those by J.J. Schuchart.

Sonata in A Major:
Flute and obligato harpsichord. BWV 1032. Composed c. 1736, in Leipzig. Similar in construction to BWV 1031, itself almost certainly modelled on QV2:18 (Quantz). Probably arranged from an earlier version for flute, violin and bass, or a concerto in C. The autograph has been cut along its bottom edge so that there are about 45-48 bars missing in the first movement. The missing bars have been reconstructed by various editors.

Sonata in C Major:
Flute and a mixture of obligato (Minuet 1) and continuo. BWV 1033. Composed c. 1731. The authorship is not generally in doubt, though some believe that the piece may be the work of CPE with corrections and/or additions by his father; what is in doubt is the form of the composition. Perhaps this was originally a work for solo flute, a companion piece to the Solo in A minor and only later was the continuo/obligato part added. Perhaps, too, the original flute part of Minuet 1 is to be found in the RH of the harpsichord part which, though in C, only descends to d, the lowest note of the traverso. The continuo part seems to be unnecessary as the flute 'solo' contains all the harmony and rhythm required - except the slow movement.

Sonata in Eb Major:
Flute and harpsichord. BWV 1031 (Attributed to J.S.) Composed 1730-1734 in Leipzig. Recent information: There exists a sonata by Quantz in Eb, QV2:18, similar in style and structure, it has lead scholars to suggest that either Quantz composed both pieces, or that Bach modelled his Sonata in Eb on that of Quantz. Since BWV 1031 is the more complex of the two, it seems reasonable to assume that QV2:18 is the earlier of the two. If Quantz is the composer of BWV 1031, then Bach may have heard it in Dresden and copied it out for his own use, perhaps for a performance by the Collegium Musicum. The two sonatas are so similar that it is beyond coincidence. Similarities: construction, rhythm, thematic material, and roles assumed by the instruments, and the range of compass which is not found in any other Bach solo flute composition. On comparing the two works, the similarities between the two are astonishing. The style of BWV 1031 is consistent with that of Quantz. Yet they could still be the work of two composers: the one, Bach, emulating the other, Quantz.

Sonata in G Minor:
Flute and Harpsichord. BWV 1020. Very similar in style to BWV 1031 which suggests that the two works are by the same composer. The style of composition is also consistent with that of Quantz. CPE Bach's copyist, Michel, attributed the work to CPE Bach and, as Bach may have emulated Quantz in BWV 1031, so CPE may have emulated his father in BWV 1020.

Solo for Flute in A Minor (Partita):
BWV 1013. Probably composed between 1717-1724 in Dresden, Cothen or Leipzig. Possibly composed for the French flutist, Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin, (1690-1768), whom Bach met first in perhaps 1717. Possibly also written for the Dresden flutist, Johann Blockwitz. If seen against the contemporary German music for flute, this work presents no particular difficulty to a good player and the nonsence perpetuated that, 'one has to spend a lifetime studying this masterpiece before understanding it...' is teacher gobbledygook.

Trio Sonata in G Major:
2 flutes and continuo. Composed 1717-23 BWV 1027

Trio Sonata in G Major:
Flute, violin, and continuo. Composed 1717-23.

Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G Major:
Violin and 2 recorders or flutes, strings and continuo. Written for the Margrave of Brandenburg in 1721.

Brandenburg concerto No. 5 in D Major:
Harpsichord, flute, and violin, strings and continuo. Written for the Margrave of Brandenburg in 1721.

Trio Sonata in C Minor:
From The Musical Offering. Flute, vioin, continuo. BWV 1079.

Ouverture in h moll (Suite in b Minor):
Flute, strings and continuo. BWV 1067. Possibly composed c. 1738/39 in Leipzig, though some believe that it could have been composed as early as 1721. The source is a set of parts in DS, Berlin, amongst which are autograph parts of the solo flute and viola.

Trevor Wye, 1995

This Guide was prepared specifically for THE STUDIO, a one year residential course for post-graduate students in Hastingleigh, Kent, England with Trevor Wye.

An information leaflet can be obtained by writing to: THE STUDIO, Tamley Cottage, Hastingleigh, Ashford, Kent, TN25 5HW, England

Return to the Trevor Wye Corner

THE STUDIO
BAROQUERY IN A NUTSHELL

Baroque? Its a 19th century word used to describe strange, irregular, bizarre, or unusual architecture, stone carving or furniture. Some comtemporary music could be called baroque!

Baroque music is about the principle of conflict - the creation of tension and its release.

Nobody invented rules for us to follow: the 'rules' are simply a record of current 18th century performing practice.

Music written before 1800 requires interpretation, Many of the signs and symbols in this music were clear to the 18th century performer, a common agreement between composer and player. This accord has to be rediscovered before a satisfactory performance can be attempted.

After 1800, the signs need little interpretation; players played the music literally.

Approach baroque music with the following considerations, as if looking at it through a window upon which this guide has been etched. These rules should be memorised.

Remember YOU CAN'T BE A DUCK UNTIL YOU LEARN HOW TO QUACK!

1. LENGTH OF THE SOUND. Sounds made by, for example, a harpsichord and an oboe differ in length: sometimes a note played by a loud instrument is played shorter to leave room to hear the accompanying passage.

Small silences are important before consonants - strong notes - they help to accent. Explore tiny silences in performance, especially in French music. These silences are referred to as articulation silences.

2. THE RULE OF THE BAR LINE and precedence of beats.

Strong and weak beats had starting words, ie; Noble - the strong beat, and Vile - the weak beat. These initials became the bowing signs for stringed instruments. But there are exceptions:

a) Exceptional accents put in by the composer.
b) Harmonic considerations - a dissonance is accented even when it is on the weak beat of the bar.
c) A rhythmic dance where a long note follows a short note especially in 3/4 time, ie:

These exceptions are musically obvious, aren't they?

3. ARTICULATION: players used different syllables to vary; the rhythm. A series of notes of the same value are usually played unequally (inegale), except;

a) repeated notes,
b) Notes with dots over them,and
c) Written ornaments.

d) A slur occurring after inegale.
4. DOTTED NOTES. CPE BACH wrote that 'the first should be longer, the second shorter - the exact proportion to be determined by the character of the music. The reverse rhythm is the reverse rule'.

MOZART said of CPE BACH that he was "the greatest teacher that ever was". CPE BACH said, 'The appoggiatura is the most important ornament: it creates tension and release'.

Appoggiatura, (French: Port de viox) from appoggiare, (Italian) - to lean upon. An appogiatura is always slurred to it's resolution: a diminuendo is essential from one to the other.

RHYTHM in MUSIC GENERALLY

Italian Music; everything is usually carefully notated.
French Music: It may be written evenly, but the right rhythm has to be interpreted. Degrees of inegale can vary a lot.

Good Taste dictates how much.

Trevor Wye, 1995

This Guide was prepared specifically for THE STUDIO, a one year residential course for post-graduate students in Hastingleigh, Kent, England with Trevor Wye.

An information leaflet can be obtained by writing to: THE STUDIO, Tamley Cottage, Hastingleigh, Ashford, Kent, TN25 5HW, England

Return to the Trevor Wye Corner

The Intonation of the Modern Flute

(This is a summary of a talk given by Trevor Wye at International Summer School, Ramsgate in 1979 and revised in 1997, though it should be pointed out that this article is for the general reader who wishes to know why and how the flutes of the middle part of this century were not very well tuned).

Some years ago, a flutist asked his piano tuner to call to correct a flat C sharp on his piano. After the tuner had complied, the flutist complained that it was still out of tune. The tuner was summoned once more and with scepticism, re-tuned the C sharp. The flutist complained again which prompted the tuner to ask 'What are you comparing the C sharp with?' "My flute, of course", the flutist replied.

Flutists rarely suspect that their flutes can be wrong. 'Surely the manufacturers must know what they are doing, especially so since these flutes are being played by the leading players of the country'!

Over the past few years, the name 'Cooper's Scale' has entered our vocabulary. To show what changes have been made to the flute since the late 50's, it is necessary for us to go back to the days of Theobold Boehm. When Boehm designed his flute in 1847, he also devised a method by which the 'scale', or hole positions could be calculated with great accuracy. This same method was also used for calculating the correct positions for the frets on stringed instruments such as the guitar.

In the mid 19th century, there was no standard pitch such as the A=440 widely recognised today. The most common pitch in Europe was A=435 though the pitch in England was A=452. The great flute makers of this time, Rudall Carte, Louis Lot, Lebret and others, made excellent flutes to this pitch which -though modified - are still in use. At the turn of the century, new makers appeared on the scene in the USA and it seems as though they copied the existing 'scales' (tone hole positions) used by the great European makers. And why not? Louis Lot flutes, for example were widely recognised as the best money could buy. During the early part of this century, the standard pitch began to rise until, in the '30's there was international agreement that the pitch worldwide, should be A-440.

To return to the manufacturers: as the pitch rose first to A=438 and finally to A=440, the flute makers - responding to the complaints of players about flat flutes - shortened the head joints on their instruments without changing the relative position of the holes, one to another. This has the effect of raising the pitch of the left hand notes too much without raising the right hand notes enough! This may explain why flutists to this day complain that the C sharp is too sharp, for example, and that the low notes are too flat. The scale is too long to be played comfortably at A=440.

Obviously, different makers responded to their advisors - the players of the day - in differnt ways, but the principal is the same.

When players complained that the foot joint notes were too flat, the clever manufacturer - (understanding almost nothing of scales!) - shortened the foot. This has the effect of raising only the low C, C sharp, D, and Eb. The equivalent action on a fretted instrument would be cutting out a section of the fingerboard and gluing the two pieces back together!

Perhaps other players complained of sharp, or even flat top notes. So, the manufacturer again obliges by moving the tone holes to help these notes and the performer, a foolish thing to do: it can correct a third octave note, but alters the pitch of two notes in the middle and lower registers. The flute can only be worse after such treatment. Perhaps each maker, aware of changes and claimed 'improvements' to the scale by their competitors, copied these defects and 'improved' them with resutant chaos. It is small wonder that flutists are not renowned for good intonation! Let us also remember, though, some excellent flutists of the past who, in spite of the anomalies of their instruments, have succeeded in playing in tune.

A curious fact should be mentioned here. After Boehm had introduced his flute of 1847 - the one we all play today - the English performers began to make keywork or fingering 'improvements' both to Boehm's flute and to the old 'simple system' eight keyed flutes. More than that, they began to invent entirely new key systems, some of which have survived to the present day! [FOOTNOTE: the author still performs regularly on a Radcliffe Systen flute made in London in the 1920s]. This seems to be a peculiarly English activity still carried on to the present day. Other countries' makers have experimented in different aspects of flute design , but is is rare for performers to do so. This fact has often been commented upon by others around the world.

Back to our story: in the early 1960s, Albert Cooper, at that time an employee of Rudall Carte and Co., was dissatisfied with the current flute scales, and began to experiment with new tone hole positions. He was also of the (correct) opinion that open hole flutes should have a different scale to closed hole flutes. His experiments were done by calculation. At the same time Elmer Cole, (still principal flute at the English National Opera today!) also recalculated Boehm's 'schema'- his method for determining the correct position of the tone holes - and was also able to check out these experiments as a performer. William Bennett was also dissatisfied with the 'scale' of his old Louis Lot. He solved the intonation problems by simply moving the holes according to the dictates of his excellent ears. Of course, these three persons, and others such as Richard Lee who were doing the same thing, talked freely to each other about their experiments, unlike the US where such talk would be regarded as of commercial interest.

In 1959, Albert Cooper left Rudall and Carte to set up on his own, making flutes with a sharper scale. Gradually, as his flutes became better known, people began to take an interest. Bennett, Cole, Lee and Cooper all agreed on the same principle, that the flutes currently being manufactured were made on a scale of about A=435, whilst performers were trying to play these flutes at A=440! The scale was too long.

If the reader's knowledge of scales and of acoustics is scant I will explain the concept of 'scales'. Imagine an instrument consisting of a piccolo joined on to the body of a flute, which in turn is joined to the body of a bass flute. If you were to move your eyes from the foot end of the bass flute towards the piccolo head joint you would notice that the holes become gradually closer together. This principle of the holes becoming closer together is most important to the understanding of what is to follow. If the holes on all woodwind instruments - and similarly the frets on string instruments - were an equal distance apart, then a piccolo would simply be a flute with a very short headpiece! It follows that an alto flute would be an ordinary C flute with a much longer headjoint!

Therefore, if the pitch of an instrument is to rise, the holes must be moved closer together or to put it another way, the scale lenght must contract. Of course, if you wish to make a flute with a much sharper scale, on e so sharp that the A on this flute corresponded to A sharp on a concert pitched flute (one made to A=440 ), then your new flute would be a semitone sharp and, unless the part is transposed, this flute would be useless for performance with others. (Many flutes were made in this way earlier this century and are known as 'sharp pitched'instruments, though they are not exactly a semitone sharp). If you were to pull out the headpiece to lower the A by a semitone, you would soon discover that the relationship of all other notes to A is wrong.

Before reading any further it would helpful for you, the reader, to pause and take out your flute and pull out the head as far as it will go without its falling out. You will soon discover that the scale is decidedly strange. Starting from low C, the scale becomes progressively flatter as you ascend. Compare the octaves, low C to upper C, and low C sharp to upper C sharp. A moments reflection must establish beyond all doubt, that a flute can be made to play accurately at only one pitch. Other slight pitch changes can be made, depending on the skill of the performer.

I first became interested in flute making in the '60's, largely as a result of meeting Messrs. Bennett, Cole and Cooper, and as a aresult, tuned my flute to a new scale - what we called the 'Cooper's Scale' of that time.,. I was fairly satisfied with the figures arrived at, but decided to set up a practical experiment to prove the theory. My scepticism arose from discovering that flutists - like all artists - will readily 'prove' that a note is sharp or flat by making small, almost undetectable adjustments to their lips. What was needed was a machine to blow the flute: one which could make no such alterations and which had no artistic temperament! This machine was duly set up using a borrowed school laboratory vacuum pump (plugged in the mains reverse), an air reservoir, a simple on-off valve, and a flute strapped to an 'L' shaped piece of wood on which were mounted plasticene (playdo) lips. Through the generosity of the late Eric McGavin of Boosey & Hawkes Ltd., I obtained some flute tubes with holes already in place. In one plain tube, I cut oval shaped holes in approximately the correct position of the expected note and mounted patches with tone holes attached cut from another flute tube, on to this tube. By using some thick grease to prevent air leaks, the tone holes were capable of being moved short distances up and down the tube thereby varying the pitch of the note. To visualise this more clearly, stretch out your left arm. Place your right hand on your left arm and imagine a tone hole sitting on the center of the back of your right hand. Slide your hand up and down your left arm; this is how the tone holes (saddles) were moved according to the pitch required.

In any form of test, one should ask, 'Who tested the tester?' You, the reader, might wish to measure a piece of paper, for example, but how can you be sure that the ruler is itself accurate? Before trusting my ears, I obtained a two octave signal generator with switched semitones, (a completely new invention in the middle sixties!), together with a chromatic set of tuning forks with which to check and adjust (with capacitors) the tuning machine. I was taking no chances.

The experiment was set up and after some initial difficulty in getting the mechanical player - known later as an 'Automatic Trevor' - to make a real flute tone, the tone holes on their patches were slid up and down until they matched the notes on the tuning machine. The tone holes were tied down and their distances from the end of the flute were measured using a steel rule and vernier gauge. The resulting figures were compared with 'Cooper's Scale' as supplied by Messrs. Bennett and Cole.

The figures were very close - so close, in fact, that when one compared this scale with the flutes currently being manufactured in Europe and the U.S.A., there was a most dramatic difference and a very reasonable basis on which to begin making, and tuning flutes. You might ask why it was not 100% accurate, but remember that each player has his own personal embouchure which means that some players cover a little more or less, of the mouth hole which in turn flattens or sharpens the notes - but not uniformly. The left hand notes A, A sharp, B, C and C sharp are progressively sharpened by a more open embouchure, Further, each player is not consistent; they cover more or less of the hole each day as the mood takes them. Some change the amount of covering depending on the octave and air pressure. Therefore, an absolutely 'perfect' scale could be built for one person and for one occasion.....perhaps at one temperature!

But we must be practical. In orchestral work the pitch is constantly shifting and it has to be flexible, according to the key, the temperature, and the mechanical curiosities of our instrument design, as well as an open, watchful ear for the other players - not to mention the condition of the liver of performer.

The Cooper's Scale was, then, as far as could be ascertained by this experiment, a good basis on which to construct, and tune, flutes. Over the next ten years I tuned about 110 flutes to this scale occasionally making small adjustments to it in the light of criticism and suggestions from colleagues. I had hoped that in doing this I might persuade the great flute makers to construct new flutes with a correct scale in the first place. That was my hope.

During this time I saw a flute made by an English maker which had engraved upon the socket of the head three lines, marked 440, 442, and 444. (!) The purchaser was assured that this flute would play at three different pitches. That a maker should peddle this kind of drivel, beggars belief.

One US maker expressed anger at my having 'butchered' their craftsmanship. My reply was, 'If you had done your job properly in the first instance, 'butchery' would have been unecessary!

A few years ago, Albert Cooper addressed a gathering of the world's flutists in the United States on the subject of flute tuning. The result was that one of the two flute making giants in the U.S.A. soon began offering flutes made to his scale. I understand that since that time they have made more flutes to Cooper's scale than to their own 'traditional' scale. The other major maker refused to alter the scale with the result that sales fell to a point where the company was in serious financial trouble. This maker finally capitulated, later offering a flutes built to a 'new scale' and, since then, their fortunes have improved.

Why don't all makers change now that the facts are known? The answer is probably pride. It must be galling to a famous maker to have to admit that they have been wrong for 60 years during which time they have produced thousands of flutes. (It might encourage the US national pastime of legal redress!). It may also be true that insufficient pressure has been exerted on the makers by the players themselves. A very skilled player, given an out of tune flute, will play it in tune and, because he has grown accustomed to its irregularities, will soon assert that the scale of the instrument is correct!. It does seem regretable that the makers don't swallow their pride and 'adjust' their scale for the benefit of the large mass of flute players who are not so gifted. There are exceptions, of course.

The Boosey & Hawkes Group, in association with Albert Cooper, have been manufacturing their entire range, including student and beginner flutes to this scale for some time. They are also manufacturing their head pieces to Albert Cooper's design. In the U.S.A., Verne Q. Powell offers a Cooper Scale flute as do several small companies. Brannen Brothers offer a Cooper's Scale flute made in association with Albert Cooper. Altus of Japan, however are far ahead of the field in my opinion. They offer a flute to Bennett's latest scale which to my ears is as near perfect as it is likely to be. I have my Lot tuned to this scale. Altus also make Jupiter flutes for sstudents to this scale. Some of the private US makers, Almeida, Jack Moors and Arista also make flutes to good scales. The majority of the Japanese don't. Their scales aren't bad, they could simply be much better.

The differences in the new (Cooper's or Bennett's) scale is hardly a small one and can clearly be seen by the expert naked eye.

A flute that is properly in tune enables the beginner and the young student to get on with the practicalities of music making without having to do battle with an imperfect instrument. After all, a pianist doesn't have to cope with intonation difficulties. Neither, within reason, should a flutist. It's up to each and every one of us to persuade the makers to make what we want, not what they think we should have.

Now for some practical advice. The universally admired Yamaha - and they do make good beginners flutes -can be considerably improved by pulling the headjoint out from its socket by about 3/8 of an inch to conform with the normal flute length. (Why the heads are so short, I don't know.) Indeed some players would advocate pulling it out further than this. The headjoint on these flutes is and if played pushed right in, and tuned with a piano, the player is forced to 'turn in', producing a small, squashed tone. Measure the flute against any other make of flute and you will see the difference. A further improvement can be gained by placing a little plasticene in the C sharp hole (L.H.) on the side nearest the headjoint, which will flatten this otherwise very sharp note [FOOTNOTE: Further advice on this subject can be found in Practice Book for the Flute, Vol. Four - Intonation]. The C naturel next to it is flat and can't be changed without a knowledge of metalwork and a sharp saw!

Other flutes: most flutes can be improved by flattening the C sharp and pulling out the foot joint. Before enthusiastically filling your flutes with plasticene, try the experiments on pp 16-17 in Practice Book Four. Generally speaking, all older flutes have a sharp C sharp, C naturel, and sometimes the A sharp in the left hand. Flatten them with plasticene by the method described above, and, if you are satisfied, make the job more permanent with fibreglass paste, or modelling paste. (Visit your local model making shop). You will find that the head can now be pushed further in to raise up the lowest notes a little. Sadly, there is no simple solution to sharpening an already flat low note. Open hole flutes do offer extra possibilities: the open hole has a sharpening effect on the hole beneath it, therefore, a piece of scotch tape over the finger hole will flatten it that note.

Many of today's manufacturers continue to make flutes which must be considered out of tune no matter to what school or style of flute playing one is attached. Pride, ignorance and prejudice are the only barriers to change. Some makers have produced their own 'scale' which goes under different titles, but there can only be one 'equal temperament'.

The story doesn't end there. Players, having equipped themselves with a decent in-tune flute, should stop dancing around the concert platform and learn to properly control the pitch of notes when playing loudly and softly, one of the worst defects of the modern player. But that is another story.

The history of equal temperament should be re-written to add that, in the 1980's, flute makers finally succumbed to a movement reputed to have first been invented 5000 years ago by the Chinese.

As a Greek philosopher remarked 2,000 years ago:

"Flute players have brains, of that there's no doubt!
but alas and alack, for they soon blow them out!"

Copyright: August, 1997 Trevor Wye

Printed with permission of Trevor Wye
Return to the Trevor Wye Corner

THE CLASSICAL 18TH CENTURY
WIND TRIO SONATA: A USEFUL LIST

Also containing some quartet, quintet, sextet and septet sonatas.
The solo instrumentation includes strings, bass and guitar

COMPOSER - PIECE - PUBLISHER

  • Anonymous Master of Breslau
    Sonata 3 rec (3fl cont) - Schott

  • Arne, T
    Trio sonata op. 3. 2fl cont - Peters
    Sonata No. 4. 2fl cont - Peters

  • Aeschbacher, W
    Trio. fl vla cont - Peters

  • Anet, J
    Sonata No. 1, 2fl cont - Siecle Musicale

  • Bach CPE
    Trio in F. vla bsn, cont - IMC
    Trio Sonata E maj. 2fl cont - Zimmermann
    D maj. fl vln cont - Moeck
    A maj. fl vln cont - Moeck
    d min - "
    C maj - "
    C maj - "
    C maj - Ricordi
    d min - "
    a min - "
    b min - Zimmermann
    Bb maj - Peters
    C maj - Barenreiter
    C maj - "
    G maj - Broekmenas
    F maj bass fl vla (bsn) cont - Schott
    Six sonatas ob (cl)bass cont - "
    Trio NO. 1 in D major. fl clt (vla) p - IMC
    Trio No. 2 in a minor. fl (vla) clt p - "
    Trio No. 3 in G major. fl (vla) clt p - "

  • Bach, JS
    Trio Sonata in G maj. fl vln cont - Zimmermann
    Trio Sonata in c minor. Musical Offering fl vln cont - Breitkopf
    Trio Sonata in G. 2fl cont - Barenreiter
    Trio Sonata in G. 2fl cont Bb: 2fl cont - Peters

  • Bach, WF
    3 Trios D maj 2fl cont - Breitkopf
    D maj 2fl cont - "
    a min 2fl cont - "
    Trio No. 2 D maj 2fl vc - Belwin
    Sonata in D maj. 2fl cont - Zimmermann
    Sonata in Bb maj. 2fl vln cont - IMC
    Sonata in Eb maj. 2fl cont - Andraud

  • Bach, JCF
    Sonata in C maj. fl ob cont - Andraud
    Sonata in A maj. fl vln cont - Sikorski
    Sonata in C maj. fl vln harps - Kistner
    Quintets in Eb + D maj. fl ob vln cont - Nagels

  • Bach, JC
    Sextet in C 2ob, vln, vc, cont - Musica Rara
    Quartet in C op 8 no.1 fl vln vla vc - "
    Quintet in D fl ob vln vc harps - Schott
    Divertimento fl ob p - Andraud

  • Barre, M de la
    Sonata No. 5. 2fl (2 ob) cont - Peters

  • Beecke, I von
    Quintet fl ob vln vla vc - Mucler

  • Bertali
    Sonatella 5rec (5fl) cont - Schott
    Sonata No. 1 d min bsn 2vl cont - Musica Rara
    Sonata No. 3 a min bsn 2vl cont - "

  • Blavet
    Concerto in a min fl 2vln cont - Ricordi

  • Boismortier
    Concerto in C fl ob cont - Ricordi
    Trio Sonata a min fl (ob) bsn (vc) cont - Musica Rara
    Sonata op 34 No. 3 in e min fl ob vln (3fl) cont - Schott
    Sonata op 34 No. 6 a min fl ob vln (3fl) cont - Schott
    Concerto C maj fl bo vln cont - Ricordi
    Sonata g min 3 fl cont - Baerenreiter
    6 Concertos for 5fl - Hofmeister
    Sonata in e min fl (ob vln) bsn (vc) cont - Barenreiter

  • Bononcini
    5 Trio Sonatas 2fl cont - Pfauen

  • Breunich, J
    Sonata 2fl vc - Barenreiter

  • Carolo
    Sonata I Bb 2bsns cont - Musica Rara

  • Cima, G
    Sonata No. 3 ob vln cont - Sikorski

  • Cimarosa
    Concerto in G maj fl ob p - Andraud

  • Clauseck, J
    Trio Sonata. 2fl vc - Barenreiter

  • Clerembault, L
    Sonata in e. 2fl (2ob, 2 vln) cont - Senart

  • Corbett, W
    Sonata g min op. 4. 2rec (2fl) cont - Schott

  • Corelli, A
    Trio Sonata op 1. fl ob bsn cont - Music Press
    Trio Sonata op 3. No. 2fl ob bsn cont - "
    3 Sonatas. 2fl (2rec, fl and ob) cont - Peters
    2 Sonatas. rec (fl) vln gtr - Doblinger

  • Corrette, M
    Sonata No. 5. fl vln cont - Ed Mus Trans
    Concerto No. 3 A maj. 2fl cont - Schott

  • Couperin, F
    10th Concert. 2fl cont - Decriev 4 Concerts Royaux. fl vla da gamba cont - Musica Rara
    4 Sonatas. fl vln cont - Senart
    Apotheose de Lully. fl vln cont - Durand
    Apotheose de Corelli. fl vln cont - Durand
    Suite la Francaise. fl vln cont - Musica Rara
    Les Nations fl vln cont - Durand

  • Croes, H
    Concerto. fl 2va cont - Noetzal

  • Daube, J
    Trio in D maj. fl lute cont - Vieweg

  • Diabelli, A
    Serenade op. 95. fl va guit - Ost Bundesverlag

  • Erbach, F
    3 Divertimenti. 2rec (2 fl) cont - Schott

  • Fasch, J
    Quartet C. ob 2vln cont - Sikorski
    Quartet G maj fl 2 rec cont - Moeck Sonata Bb rec (fl) ob vln cont - Barenreiter
    Sonata D maj. fl vln bsn cont - "
    Canonic Sonata. fl vln cont - Moeck
    Sonata in Bb. ob vln cont - Barenreiter
    Sonata op 3 No. 1. 2 ob cont - Nagel
    Canonic Sonata. ob bsn cont - Moeck

  • Fesch, W de
    Sonata g min. 2 fl cont - Peters
    Sonata e min. 2 fl cont - "

  • Filtz, A
    Sonata G maj. 2fl cont - Peters
    Sonata D maj. 2fl cont - "

  • Finger, G
    Sonata F. fl ob cont - Nagels
    Sonata d min. fl ob cont - "
    Sonata C maj. ob tpt cont - Musica Rara

  • Fischer, J
    Suite in G and Suite F for 5strgs or treble wind + cont - Barenreiter

  • Frescobaldi
    5 Canzonas. 2ob cont - Schott

  • Fux, J
    Trio Sonata d min. fl vln vc cont - Peters
    Sinfonia. fl ob cont - Nagels
    Trio Sonata. in Bb ob vln cont - "
    Nurnberger Partita. fl ob cont - Moseler
    Sinfonia. rec (fl) ob (fl) cont - Barenreiter

  • Galliard, J
    Sonata C maj. rec (fl) vln (ob) cont - Ricordi
    Sonata d min. rec (fl) vln (ob) cont - "

  • Galuppi, B
    Trio. fl ob cont - Kneusslin
    Trio Sonata G maj. ob vln cont - Barenreiter
    Concerto e min. 2fl cont - Peters

  • Gassman, F
    6 Sonatas. fl vln vla - Kistner

  • Gebel, G
    Triosonata F. 2fl (2 vln) cont - Kistner
    Triosonata b min. 2fl (2 vln) cont - "

  • Gluck, C von
    7 Trios. 2fl (2 vln) cont - Eschig

  • Goepfart, K
    Trio op. 74 c min. fl ob cont - Baxter

  • Graf, F
    Trio D maj. fl vln vla - Peters

  • Graun
    Trios 1 + 2 D maj + E maj. ob d`am. hn bsn - McGinnis
    Trio in F. vln ob p - Breitkopf
    Sonata in Eb. 2fl (2 vlns or 2 obs) cont - Barenreiter

  • Graupner, C
    Suite F maj. fl 2ob - Peters
    Concerto. bsn solo 2 vln vla cont - Breitkopf

  • Gretzky
    Triosonata G maj. vln ob cont - Barenreiter

  • Handel, GF
    Trio sonata c min. rec vln cont - Schott
    Trio sonata F op. 2 No.2 rec vln cont - "
    Trio sonata F. ob bsn cont - Breitkopf
    6 Trio sonatas 2ob cont (Bb, d, Eb, F, G, D) - Schott
    Trio No. 2 d min. 2ob bsn - Belwin Mills
    Trio sonata op 2 Nos. 1 + 4 2fl (fl ob, fl vln) cont - Schott
    8 Trio sonatas op 5 2fl (fl ob, fl vln) cont (c, F, Bb, F, g, g, g, E) - Breitkopf
    Trio sonata b min fl vln cont - Ricordi
    Trio sonata Eb maj 2fl cont - Music Press
    Trio sonata c min rec (fl) vln gtr - Doblinger
    Concerto a 4 D maj 2vlns (fl vln) vc cont - Schott
    Concerto a 4 d min fl vln rec cont - "

  • Hasse, J
    Trio sonata e min 2rec (2fl) cont - Schott
    Trio sonata F maj ob vln cont - Sikorski
    Trio sonata C maj rec (fl) vln cont - Kalmus

  • Haydn, F
    4 London Trios 2fl vc - Nagel
    Divertimenti fl vln vc - Pelikan
    3 Sonatas fl vln vc - Musica Rara
    6 Trios op 100 fl vln vc - Vieweg
    5 Eisenstaedter Trios fl vln vc - Breitkopf
    3 Divertimenti fl vln vc - Vieweg
    Divertimento D maj fl 2vlns vla vc bass - "
    Trio No. 4 F maj fl vln cont - Schott
    6 Leichte Wiener Trios fl vln vc - Moseler
    Divertimento in D fl va vc - Pro Musica
    12 Nocturnes 2fl 2hns - "
    Cassation 2fl 2hns - Ars Viva
    Quartet G maj fl vln va cont - Schott
    Divertimento fl ob 2 vln va vc - Doblinger

  • Heinichen, J
    Sonata G maj fl ob cont - Breitkopf
    Trio ob va da g. cont - Doblinger
    Trio sonata c min ob vln cont - Sikorski
    Concerto G maj ob 2vln cont - Breitkopf
    Concerto G maj fl (ob) 2vc cont - "
    Concerto No. 8 4rec 4strgs (cont) - Moeck

  • Hertel, J
    3 Partitas ob va da g. cont - Sikorski

  • Holzbauer
    Quintet in G fl vln va vc cont - Breitkopf

  • Hotteterre
    Sonata No. 2 en Trio 2fl cont - Schott

  • Janitsch, J
    Kammersonate D maj fl ob cont - Breitkopf
    Kammersonate op 8 fl ob (2 fl) va vc cont - "

  • Jomelli
    Triosonata D maj 2fl cont - Hofmeister

  • Keiser, R
    Sonata in D 2 fl cont - Nagels
    Sonata in D fl vln cont - "
    Sonata in G fl vln cont - "
    Sonata in D fl vln cont - "

  • Keller, G
    Quintet d min 2rec (2fl) 2 ob cont - Schott
    Sonata 2fl 2ob cont - Ars Viva

  • Kleinknecht
    Sonata c min fl ob cont - Breitkopf

  • Knab
    Sonata 2rec (2fl) cont - Barenreiter

  • Krebs, J
    Trio sonata b min 2fl cont - Kistner
    Suite + Overture D maj fl vln cont - Breitkopf
    Sonata a min 2vl (fl vln) cont - Nagel
    Suite D maj fl vln cont - Schott
    Suite D maj fl ob cont - "
    Suite 3fl cont - "

  • Leclair, JM
    2nd Recreation de musique op 8 2fl cont - Ricordi
    Trio sonata op 2 No. 8. fl va da g. (bsn) ct - Schott
    Trio sonata op 9 No. 2. fl (vln) vc cont - Chester

  • Linicke, J
    2 Suites 2fl cont - Peters

  • Locatelli, P
    6 Sonatas op 3 2fl cont - IMC
    6 Sonatas op 5 2 fl cont - Kistner
    Sonata op 2 No. 2rec (fl) ob (fl) cont - Moetze
    Trio sonata F maj fl va da g. cont - Muziekberg

  • Loeillet
    Trio sonata F maj fl ob cont - Schott
    Trio sonata c min fl ob cont - IMC
    Trio sonata d min fl ob cont - "
    Trio sonata g min 2fl cont - "
    Sonata op 2 Nos. 2 + 6 fl ob cont - Musica Rara
    Sonata op 1 Nos. 3 + 5 2 fl (ob vln) cont - "
    Sonata op 1 Nos. 1-3 2fl (ob vln) cont - Barenreiter
    Sonata op 1 Nos. 2, 4, 6 2fl cont - Schott
    4 Sonatas op 5 vln (fl) cont - Lemoine
    Quintet 2fl 2rec (2ob) cont - Barenreiter
    Quintet Sonata: Mortoriums fl ob tpt vln ct - Musica Rara

  • Lotti
    Trio A maj fl ob d`am cont - Ricordi
    Sonata G maj fl, va da g. cont - IMC

  • Lully, JB
    Le Divertissement de Chambord 2 ob (2 fl) 2 eb (2 vla) bsn (vc) cont - Sikorski

  • Marais, M
    Suite D maj 2fl cont - Schott

  • Mondonville, J
    Sonata in G fl vln cont - Senart

  • Myslivecek, J
    3 Trios fl von cont - IMC

  • Nardini, P
    Trio sonata 2fl (2vlns) cont - Muller

  • Naudot
    Sonata op 17 No. 5 rec (ob) 2vlns cont - Barenreiter

  • Paisible, J
    Sonata 4 rec (4fl ob) cont - Schott
    5 Sonatas fl ob (vln) cont - Moeck
    Sonata Prima 2ob cont - Moeck

  • Pepusch, JC
    Sonata ob vln cont - Schott
    Triosonata G maj fl ob cont - Peters
    Sonata da Camera g min fl vln (ob) cont - Kistner
    Sonata da Camera C maj fl vln cont - Schott
    Sonata da Camera Bb maj 2 fl cont - "
    Triosonata d min fl vla (vc) cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata e min fl vla (vc) cont - Schott
    4 Concerti op 8 2fl 2ob (2vlns) cont - Musica Rara

  • Pez, JC
    Triosonata C maj 2fl cont - Peters
    Triosonata d min 2fl cont - Nagel

  • Pezel
    Bicivia bsn tpt cont - Musica Rara

  • Platti
    Triosonata in G fl ob cont - Musica Rara

  • Prowo, P
    Sonatas Nos. 5 + 6 2ob cont - Moeck
    Concerto 2rec 2ob 2bsn - Breitkopf

  • Purcell, D
    Triosonata d min 2fl cont - Schott

  • Quantz, JJ
    Triosonata c min fl ob cont - Zimmermann
    Triosonata G maj 2fl cont - Heinrichsofen
    Triosonata D maj 2 fl cont - "
    Triosonata g min 2fl cont - Kistner
    Triosonata D maj 2fl cont - Forberg
    Triosonata G maj 2fl (fl ob) cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata D maj 2fl (fl ob) cont - Ricordi
    Triosonata c min 2fl (fl ob) cont - Zimmermann
    Triosonata C maj fl rec cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata a min fl ob cont - Moseler
    Triosonata D maj fl vln cont - Kistner
    Triosonata C maj fl vln cont - Schott
    Triosonata D maj fl vln cont - Breitkopf
    Trio D maj ob vln cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata G maj 2ob cont - "
    Triosonata e min 2ob cont - Sikorski

  • Quentin, JB
    Sonata fl vln va cont - Schott

  • Rameau, JF
    Pieces de clavecin en concerts vln (fl) va da g. (vln) harps - Barenreiter

  • Richter, FX
    6 Sonatas op 2 harpchd fl vc - Barenreiter
    Sonata in G harps fl vc - Schott

  • Roman. J
    Trio sonata 2ob p - Nordiska

  • Rust, F
    Trio in D 2fl, va d`am - Kallmeyer
    Quartet A maj fl 2vln vc - "

  • Salieri, A
    Concerto in C fl ob p - Doblinger

  • Sammartini
    12 Sonatas (2 vols) 2fl (fl ob) cont - Schott
    Sonata D maj fl 2vln cont - Peters

  • Scarlatti, A
    Quartet sonata in F 3 fl (3 vlns) cont - Peters
    Sonata A maj 2fl 2vlns cont - Moeck
    Concerto a min rec (fl) 2vlns cont - "

  • Scheidt
    Suite 5 strings (5fl) - Barenreiter

  • Schickhardt, J
    Trio sonata in F rec (fl) vln gtr - Kalmus
    6 Concertos 4 fl cont - Barenreiter
    Sonata op 5 No. 2 D maj fl 2ob cont - OUP

  • Schmelzer, J
    Sonata 7 7fl cont - Schott
    Quartet Sonata bsn vln tromb cont - Musica Rara
    Sonata in G bsn vln tpt tromb cont - "
    Sonata bsn 2 vlns tpt va da g. cont - "

  • Somis, GP
    Sonata in F 2 vlns (2 fl) cont - Ricordi
    Sonata in Bb 2 vlns (2 fl) cont - "

  • Spiegler
    Canzona bsn rec (fl or ob) cont - Musica Rara

  • Stamitz, C
    Trio fl vln cont - Nagel

  • Stamitz, K
    6 Trio sonatas op 14 fl vln cont - Barenreiter
    Trio G maj 2fl vc - "

  • Stanley, J
    Trio movement fl ob cont - Schott

  • Stepan, J
    Concertino harps fl 2hn vc cb - Artia

  • Stolzel, G
    3 Trios fl vln cont - Sikorski
    Trio sonata f min 2ob cont - Nagels
    Trio sonata 2ob cont - Barenreiter
    Sonata c min - Breitkopf
    Sonata e min - "
    Trio sonata in D fl vln cont - Muller

  • Stradella, A
    Sinfonia a tre 2ob cont - Schott

  • Tartini, G
    2 Trio sonatas fl vln va - Benjamin

  • Telemann, GP
    Triosonata A ob d`am vln cont - Sikorski
    Triosonata g min vln ob cont - "
    Triosonata Bb ob vln cont - "
    Sonata in G ob vln cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata c min ob vln cont - Sikorski
    Triosonata a min fl ob cont - IMC
    Triosonata d min fl ob (vln) cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata g min fl vln (ob) cont - "
    Triosonata a min fl vln (ob) cont - "
    Triosonata F maj fl vln (ob) cont - "
    Triosonata D maj 2 fl cont - "
    Triosonata A maj 2 fl cont - IMC
    Sonata en trio ob vln cont - Foetisch
    Triosonata in C rec vln cont - Schott
    Triosonata a min rec vln cont - "
    Trietti melodichi e scherzi 2 fl cont - Breitkopf
    Triosonata E maj fl vln cont - Nagel
    Triosonata Eb maj fl vln cont - IMC
    Triosonata G maj fl vln cont - Barenreiter
    Polish Sonata No. 1 2 fl cont - Moeck
    Polish Sonata No. 2 A maj fl vla cont - "
    Triosonata b min fl va da g. cont - Schott
    Triosonata d min fl ob cont - Sikorski
    Triosonata e min fl ob cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata c min fl ob cont - IMC
    Triosonata e min fl ob d`am cont - Tafelmusik
    Trio fl ob d`am cont - Ricordi
    Concerto fl ob d`am cont - Litolff
    Sonatina e min ob vln cont - Barenreiter
    Triosonata rec (fl) vln gtr - Kalmus
    Triosonata a min rec (fl) vln (ob) cont - Peters
    Quartet in D ob vln vla cont - Sikorski
    Concerto da camera fl 2vln cont - Barenreiter
    Quartet G maj fl ob vln cont - "
    Quartet d min rec 2 fl cont (bsn 2fl cont) - "
    Quartet e min fl vln vc cont - "
    Quartet F maj fl ob vln cont - "
    Quartet b min fl vln (ob d`am) vc cont - Nagels
    Quartet b min rec vln vc cont - Schott
    Chambersonata `Echo` fl ob va vc cont - Breitkopf
    Suite a min rec 2vln va cont - Schott
    Concerto a min 2rec (2fl) 2ob 2vln cont - Schott

  • Uccelini, M
    Die Hochyeit 2vln (fl ob) cont - Vieweg

  • Valentine, R
    Triosonata in C 2fl (fl ob) cont - Schott
    Triosonata a min 2fl (fl ob) cont - "
    Triosonata d min 2fl (fl ob) cont - "

  • Veracini, A
    Sonata da camera fl (vln) vc p - Chester

  • Vivaldi, A
    Trio 2ob cont - Moeck
    Concerto g min fl ob bsn - Ricordi
    Concerto g min P 404 fl ob bsn - IMC
    Concert P 129 ob bsn cont - "
    Sonata g min P 404 fl ob bsn cont - "
    Concerto F maj P 322 fl vln bsn cont - Ricordi
    Concerto D maj P 206 fl vln bsn cont - IMC
    Concerto d min fl vln bsn cont - Ricordi
    Concerto in D (Il Gardinellto) P 155 fl ob vln bsn cont - Ricordi
    Concerto in D P 207 fl ob clar bsn cont - "
    Conerto F maj P 323 fl ob vln bsn cont - IMC
    Concerto g min P 403 fl ob vln bsn cont - Ricordi
    Concerto g min P 360 fl ob vln bsn cont - "
    Concerto D maj P 204 fl ob (vln) vln bs c - "
    Concerto G maj P 105 fl ob vln bsn cont - "
    Concerto C maj P 82 fl ob vln bsn cont - IMC
    Concerto P 81 fl ob 2 vlns cont - Ricordi
    Concerto P 342 (La Notte) fl bsn 2 vlns cont - "

  • Weckmann
    Sonata bsn ob vln tromb cont - Musica Rara

  • Witt, C
    Suite in F 2rec ten rec (fl ob vln) cont - Barenreiter

  • Wolf, E
    Quartet fl ob (vln) bsn (vc) cont - Peters

  • Zachow, F
    Kammertrio No. 25 ob (fl) bsn cont - Kistner
    Triosonata in F fl bsn cont - "

  • Zelenka, J
    Sonatas in F, F, g, c 2ob (2bsn) cont - Barenreiter

It will be appreciated that in many of the works the instruments are interchangeable in line with normal 18th century practice.

i.e. fl/rec/vln/ob etc.
vc/bsn/d bass/va da g. etc.
harps/cont/p/hp/gtr etc.

Trevor Wye, 1995

This Guide was prepared specifically for THE STUDIO, a one year residential course for post-graduate students in Hastingleigh, Kent, England with Trevor Wye.

An information leaflet can be obtained by writing to: THE STUDIO, Tamley Cottage, Hastingleigh, Ashford, Kent, TN25 5HW, England

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